There are several types of eye allergies, and each one is different. The most common type is called atopic conjunctivitis, and it is caused by a hypersensitivity to allergens and airborne pollutants. This type of eye allergy is often accompanied by allergic rhinitis. Hay fever is an acute hypersensitivity to pollen, and symptoms include excessive tear production and itching of the eyes.
Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis
Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the eye caused by an allergic reaction. It causes symptoms such as watery, mucus discharge, and red, itchy eyes. It may also result in a runny nose or sneezing. Symptoms vary from person to person and may be associated with different allergens. Pollen from trees, grasses, or ragweed can trigger symptoms. Most often, these allergens are present on hot, dry, windy days.
Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis is a common condition, affecting more than half of the population. Symptoms typically occur during the spring, summer, or fall and are triggered by exposure to specific allergens. Grass pollen, in particular, is the most common cause of this ocular rash. However, indoor allergens, such as dust, mold, and animal dander, can also be a trigger for allergic conjunctivitis.
There are several treatments available for SAC. Both pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatments can help treat the symptoms. The American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology has published a table of current pharmacological treatments for SAC.
The diagnosis of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis is made based on the clinical history and exam of the patient. The doctor may perform a skin-prick test or allergy challenge test to determine which allergen is causing the symptoms. In some cases, an allergy test may reveal systemic allergy, which is helpful in making the diagnosis.
There are several types of eye allergies. Atopic keratoconjunctivitis is the most common of these. It is caused by an immune reaction to pollen and other airborne allergens. Many people with this disease also experience allergic rhinitis. The symptoms of hay fever are itching, burning, and swelling of the eyelids. The eye will also produce excessive tears.
If symptoms are uncontrollable despite the use of a topical treatment, an allergist can help. They can prescribe immunotherapy and sensitization to treat the disease. However, they may refer patients back to their primary care provider for chronic management. In such cases, communication between practitioners is key to the best treatment.
The main goal of treatment for seasonal allergic conjunctivitis is to control the symptoms. Treatment usually involves medications that reduce inflammation and reduce itchiness. Some treatment options include mast cell inhibitors or antihistamines. In more severe cases, immunotherapy is used. These treatments aim to prevent chronic inflammation, which can cause long-term damage to the eye.
Atopic keratoconjunctivitis is the most severe form of allergic conjunctivitis and may result in blindness. While this type of allergy is less common than other types of eye allergy, the symptoms are still very painful and can cause significant damage to the eye’s surface. Some cases can even lead to corneal scarring and vision loss.
Vernal allergic conjunctivitis
Vernal allergic conjunctivitis (VACC) is an inflammatory condition of the eye caused by allergies. The main symptoms of this eye disease include itching, burning, and photophobia. The disease often strikes young males, but it also occurs in adulthood. It is also more common in people of Asian or African descent.
Vernal allergic conjunctivitis has a similar presentation to seasonal conjunctivitis. Both are related to warm weather and different regional pollinating seasons. Although they are similar, vernal conjunctivitis may progress more quickly during the second or third seasons. It is also common to develop an ocular discharge.
Treatment for vernal allergic conjunctivitis depends on the underlying cause. Topical antibiotics and corticosteroids can be used to reduce inflammation and relieve symptoms. Alternatively, topical antihistamines can help prevent symptoms from recurring.
If the symptoms are persistent or recurrent systemic treatment is necessary. A goniotomy can be performed to reduce the sensitivity of the eye pressure to corticosteroids and prolong the duration of treatment with corticosteroids. In some patients, mast-cell stabilizer eye drops are used as an additional treatment to reduce the symptoms.
Vernal allergic conjunctivitis is also associated with increased levels of substance P in the plasma. In a study by Kavanagh et al., mesenchymal stem cells were found to suppress the Ig E response in patients with the condition.